Veganism is both the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals. A follower of veganism is known as a vegan.
Distinctions are sometimes made between several categories of veganism. Dietary vegans (or strict vegetarians) refrain from consuming animal products, not only meat but also eggs, dairy products and other animal-derived substances. The term ethical vegan is often applied to those who not only follow a vegan diet but extend the philosophy into other areas of their lives, and oppose the use of animal products for any purpose. Another term is environmental veganism, which refers to the avoidance of animal products on the premise that the harvesting or industrial farming of animals is environmentally damaging and unsustainable.
The term vegan was coined in 1944 by Donald Watson when he co-founded the Vegan Society in England, at first to mean "non-dairy vegetarian" and later "the doctrine that man should live without exploiting animals." Interest in veganism increased in the 2010s; vegan stores opened, and vegan options became available in more supermarkets and restaurants in many countries.
Reno is part of the Reno–Sparks metropolitan area, which consists of all of both Washoe and Storey counties, and has a 2013 estimated population of 437,673, making it the second largest metropolitan area in Nevada.
Archaeological finds place the eastern border for the prehistoric Martis people in the Reno area.
The Reno ([ˈrɛːno]) is a river of Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy. It is the tenth longest river in Italy (the sixth longest of those that flow directly into the sea) and the most important of the region apart from the Po.
It has a drainage basin of about 5,000 square kilometres (1,900sqmi). The annual average discharge at the mouth is about 95 cubic metres per second (3,400cuft/s); at the point the river start to flow in the Pianura Padana (Po River Plain), it amounts to about 25 cubic metres per second (880cuft/s).
The highest values registered at the mouth have approached 2,300 cubic metres per second (81,000cuft/s), but the typical value when the river is in flood is around 1,000 cubic metres per second (35,000cuft/s). The minimal discharge reported is 0.6 cubic metres per second (21cuft/s).
The river rises in the Le Lari massif of the province of Pistoia (Tuscany) at about 745 metres (2,444ft) above sea level, from two streams that join near Le Piastre, in the comune of Pistoia. Its upper course marks the border between Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna and flows in a wooded area crossed by the Bologna-Porretta-Pistoia railway line (inaugurated in 1864 and one of the most outstanding for the time as for engineering effort).
The upper course is characterized by several artificial reservoirs whose dams are used for hydro-electric energy production. The power produced in the basin of the Reno basin is second, for Apennine rivers, only to that of the Nera-Velino in Umbria.